Our customer services representatives are available 24 hours a day, from Monday to Sunday.

Defect Characterization


Alfa Chemistry provides testing services for graphene defects. The commonly used graphene preparation methods more or less introduce certain defects. Different types of defects may adversely or beneficially affect graphene. The characterization of graphene defects is of great significance to its application research. Alfa Chemistry uses Raman spectroscopy to test and analyze unprocessed graphene and its devices, and provide you with comprehensive analysis results.

Request A Quote

Our Instrument Platforms for Defect Analysis


  • Raman Spectroscopy

The Raman method is based on the analysis of the Raman scattering effect that occurs when light passes through the sample. It can characterize the number of layers and defects of the graphene material by analyzing the frequency, intensity, peak position and half-width of the sample's Raman spectrum. It is an important means of graphene material testing and analysis.

Defect-Characterization-PictureFig 1. Setup of the Raman spectrometer. (Mohr C, et al, 2010)

  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)

The transmission electron microscopy method is suitable for academic research. Generally, the test cycle of TEM is longer. It can realize the in-situ observation of the defect change process.

Defect-Characterization-PictureFig 2. Elementary defects and frequently observed defect transformations under irradiation. (a) The Thrower-Stone-Wales defect, (b) defect-free graphene, (c) (5–9) vacancy, (d) (5–8-5) divacancy cluster, (e) (555–777) divacancy cluster, (f) (5555–6-7777) divacancy cluster. (Kotakoski J, et al. 2011)

Detectable samples include:

Graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, CVD graphene and other graphene materials.

Testing Standard

GB/T 30544.13-2018 ISO/TS 80004-13:2017(en): Graphene and Related Two-dimensional (2D) Materials.

The Usefulness of Test Reports

  • R&D use: Identify defects, shorten R&D cycle, and reduce R&D costs.
  • Improve product quality: Use data from the analysis to identify problems in products, improve product quality, and reduce production costs..
  • Use of research paper data.

Why Us?

1. We are an experienced professional R&D team.
2. Laboratory management system meets ISO/IEC17025 international laboratory standards.
3. The detection cycle is short and the scheme is complete.

Alfa Chemistry is confident to provide customers with efficient and high-standard graphene defect analysis services.



  1. Mohr C, et al. (2010). "Inexpensive Raman Spectrometer for Undergraduate and Graduate Experiments and Research." Journal of Chemical Education. 87(3), 326-330.
  2. Kotakoski J, et al. (2011). "From Point Defects in Graphene to Two-Dimensional Amorphous Carbon." Physical Review Letters, 106, 105505.
Our products are for research use only and cannot be used for any clinical purposes.

Online Inquiry

Verification code